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HISTORY
Mzia Tkavashvili
In order to extend their political influence on North Caucasians Russian authorities actively used missionary work along with military expedition and migration politics. Starting from the first decade of the XIX century mass Islamization of North Caucasians started. In order to give an organized character to preaching of Orthodox Christianity among mountainous peoples by the decree of the Russia...
 
The Club of Experts presents to readers Russian-language copies of two small documents that date 1844 and are in the Georgian national Archive and a short overview of their content. фонд 2, опись 1, дело №11180 Собственной Его Императорского Величества Канцелярии временное отделение по делам Закавказского Края г.C.Петербург. 30 ноября 1844г. №692 Милостивый Государь Александр Иванович ...
 
Lia Akhaladze
One of the greatest examples of the XI century Georgian architecture - the Church of St. George of Ilori is asking for help. Recently "restoration works" were done to the church as a result of which instead of single-nave design we have received a nondescript building that has a Russian dome installed on it. According to words of XVIII century Georgian historian Vaskushti Bagrationi "Ilori Churc...
 
Avtandil Songulashvili
Review of article by Andrey Epifantsev "On the question voluntariness of accession of Abkhazia into Russia". A state should have a clearly defined international function, and it should not be just means for a strong state to realise its goals. Only in this case its price on the international market is solid and stable, only then it will become a real state. That is why there is no political ...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
(see part I) ... Against this background attention is attracted by a speech made by Noe Zhordania at the session of the Constituent Assembly of April 30th 1920: "Letting Bolshevism in our country and its reign here - said he – means us becoming Azerbaijan, domination of Bolshevik-Islamic imperialism in Georgia. Embarking on the road of Azerbaijan, accepting its political belief means to...
 
Lia Akhaladze
The territory of modern Abkhazia like other historic regions of Georgia preserves rich historical and cultural legacy that survived whirl of centuries and till today is a symbol of cultural and historical unity of our country and its spiritual strength. Of historical regions of Georgia Abkhazia was a north-eastern gate of Georgia which constantly guarded Georgian statehood and spirituality. It w...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
(see part I) Georgian state had the defined policy with regards to an issue of sameness of political aspirations of Bolsheviks and Tsarist Russia. A great example of this is an editorial "About approach of the Red Army to the Caucasus" that was published in Ertoba newspaper. The said article recognizes their sameness despite contradiction of ideological and political lines of the Tsarist a...
 
Gogi Maisuradze
After Russian imperialist state established itself in the Transcaucasus it has done all in its power to shake foundations of centuries-old and good-neighbourly relations between Georgians and Abkhazians by means of purposeful incidious activities and policies based on them. Prominent figures of Abkhazian and Georgian intelligentsia such as Ilia Chachavadze, Akaki Tsereteli, Niko Nikoladze, Sergo...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
One of the most difficult spheres of foreign policy of independent Georgia was relationship with Soviet Russia. Georgian politicians were well aware that Russian orientation meant destruction for the country. Therefore, they gave priority to western orientation. Despite this, and based on the principle of cooperation and equality, young Georgian republic was ready to cooperate with Russia as wel...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
"An uninvited guest is worse than a Tatar" Russian proverb For the last two-three decades there was a purposeful falsification of the history of Ossetian migration in Georgia by non-Georgian authors. The author that is to be discussed below dedicated several book to this issue. It is determined that migration of Ossetians in Georgia occurred in the late Middle Ages. In Dvaleti it happened in...
 
Gogi Maisuradze
In the second half of the XIX century the Russian imperial authorities started to actively master and colonize historical Georgian lands. In our view, this process was consciously or unconsciously presented in a biased and distorted way by Russian and Abkhazian authors in their "works". They presented as though that was the time when Georgians "annexed" Abkhazia and Georgians "invaded" this regi...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
... Georgia reached the height of its strength in the XII and the first quarter of the XIII century. In this period it was one of the strongest countries of the greater Middle East which was mainly due to large number of its population. Indeed, according to the population census in 1254 there were 8 million people living in Georgia. It is notable that in the Middle Ages western Georgia was exclu...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
"My work covers anatomy of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict and considers the question of indigenous population of Tskhinvali and Ossetian relocation to Georgia in XVII-XIX centuries based on analysis of Georgian and foreign sources and the official population data. It reveals absurdity of the point of view of Ossetian "scientists"-amateurs about joining of "South Ossetia" to Russia in 1774 and pr...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
(see part I) Authors of the articles openly expressed their views and at the same time they were trying to find a way out of this situation. With this regard, particular interest is aroused by the article "Ossetian danger" published in the Sakhalkho Sakme newspaper by an author writing under a penname of Akhalgoreli. "What do we do with those people - the author asks - who enjoy all sorts of ...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
The order of authorities of Soviet Russia towards Ossetians living in Georgia - putting Georgia in the state of war for the purpose of destruction of Georgian statehood – seriously raised an issue of independence of Georgia and physical survival of Georgian people. All the more that at the time there was a real danger of civil war and its permanent existence. Publications in the press of t...
 
Gogi Maisuradze
It is scientifically proven that in the beginning of the XVIII century Ossetians started to settle on the territory of Georgia, namely in the upper parts of Jejori gorge (Kudaro) and that of Ksani gorge (Zhamuri). Migration of Ossetians in Zhamuri was happening both from mountainous gorges of North Ossetia and mountainous strip of the Greater Liakhvi gorge. Prominent Ossetian historian Vasil Aba...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
Strengthening of Ossetians and their becoming insolent was aided by the Georgian RevCom that at the session of March 13th 1921 determined to put aside one billion rubles and appropriate construction materials for restoration of so-called South Ossetia which according to the RevCom "was destroyed by the Menshevik troops during the rebellion". It was the day when it was decided to create South Oss...
 
Gogi Maisuradze
Approach of leaders of the Democratic Republic of Georgia towards Abkhazian issues in 1918-1921 and experiments that were carried out towards ethnic minorities by Soviet authorities after the democratic government immigrated from Georgia Four days before to establishment of the Soviet authority in Georgia, on February 21st 1921 the legitimate government of the country managed to approve the f...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
Some Ossetian historians argue that Ossetians have been living in Shida Kartli region i.e. on the territory of former South Ossetian Autonomous District from time immemorial. If so, their culture must have left at least some trace on this land. But there is nothing there. All that was found on the territory of so-called South Ossetia as a result of archaeological excavations by art historians un...
 
Gogi Maisuradze
Approach of official circles of Russia towards cultural heritage of Abkhazians and a role of Georgian intelligentsia in its rescue In 1868 by official decision of the Russian authorities Abkhazian language was declared an undeveloped language, "... it does not have a script, there is neither religious nor secular literature in this language, and therefore Abkhazians should study and pray in ...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
Entry of Georgian army into the Tskhinvali region was responded by People's Commissar of foreign affairs of the Russian government Chicherin with a protest note: "... we are concerned to learn that infantry troops had been sent to South Ossetia where soviet republic was declared with a goal to eliminate this government. If this is correct we firmly demand that you withdraw your troops from Osset...
 
Gogi Maisuradze
It is a universally known fact that by annexation of countries empires achieve several goals simultaneously. In particular, at the time the most important thing is to add new territories, to get hold of natural resources and other material wealth, strengthening and improvement of geo-strategic and military positions, change of the demographic situation in its' favour and so on. Together with the...
 
Ronald Topchishvili
It should be said from the start that study of Georgian-Ossetian relations became especially acute in the last two decades. The history of two neighbouring ethnic groups became a subject of study of non-Georgians mainly because that authors were trying to purposely falsify the history. And falsification serves the only goal - to justify ungrounded claims to historical Georgian lands. Attempts of...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
(see part I) In the beginning of the XX century practice of using woods used to cause certain confrontations between Georgians and Ossetians. For example, Ossetians that lived in a village of Avlevi and who were refugees could make use of forests for free. Aboriginal population – Georgian peasants were deprived of such rights. With a purpose of finding money that was necessary for takin...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
There are relatively valuable data about Ossetia and Ossetians in written sources, scientific works or literary fiction. Most of these data informs us about ill-disposed attitude of Ossetians towards Georgian people which was noted for ruthlessness and hostile actions in most cases. Works of Vakhushti Bagrationi, German scientist of the Russian Imperial academy of Sciences Guldenstadt, Alexander...
 
Tamaz Beradze
In 2007 the History of Abkhazia from Ancient Times to Modern Days by Bgazhba and Lakoba was published in Sukhumi. The authors promise in a summary that by connecting well-known historical materials, results of the latest archeological findings and newly-discovered documents they would present a complete history of indigenous people of Abkhazia against the background of the most important events ...
 
Gogi Maisuradze
Georgian-Russian war actions in 2008 in Tskhinvali region and other parts of Georgia, as well as official recognition of Abkhazia and so-called South Ossetia by Russia clearly showed to the entire world true face of Russia and unconcealed imperial intentions of this country towards small Georgia. It became absolutely clear that behind slogans of democracy Russia continues politics of Tsarist Rus...
 
Gogi Maisuradze
Lately a proposition about pure Arian descent of Ossetian people is gathering strength in Ossetian historiography. And the greatest advocates of this are Tskhinvalian scientists. Their works especially clearly demonstrates a sharp U-turn from a universally acknowledged scientific concept about ethnic syncretism of Ossetian people and tendency of active advancement of that absurd suggestion as th...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
It is notable that when South Ossetian autonomous district was being created artificially and Georgian villages were forcefully incorporated into it at that time Ossetia that is situated on the other, north side of the Great Caucasus Range and which is a real homeland of Ossetians did not have any autonomy. North Ossetian autonomous district was only created in the Russian SSR in 1924. In 1936 t...
 
Lela Saralidze
The term "South Ossetia" from a historical point of view is very unnatural, and therefore unacceptable, as this term means the territory of historically Georgian region - Shida Kartli. This name was given in violation of international law to the Georgian land, which gradually was taken over by Ossetians, who came from the north. The fact of the settlement of Ossetians on the Georgian territory i...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
In thirties of the XIX century under the Russian influence terms "South Ossetia" and "North Ossetia" that were unknown till then entered historical and geographical vocabulary. Establishment of such terms as "Ossetia" "South Ossetia" in Georgian onomastics was helped also by creation of so-called Ossetian okrug in the Tbilisi province for Ossetians of Liakhvi gorge and Dvaleti (1843). One sectio...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
There is no other territory in Georgia that would be more Georgian than Shida Kartli. These lands that were settled with Ossetians in not faraway past were an ancient home of Georgians. Georgian ethnos was formed here and had been developing since ancient times from which time it is possible to trace ethnic and cultural processes on the Georgian territory. Settlement of Ossetians was due to vari...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
Old Georgians used to say that in this sinned world there is treasure that is touched by no rust or must, that is not burnt in fire, drown in water or destroyed by a sword. And this is friendship and brotherhood of different nations. But it can also happen that despite good deeds, solidarity, care and help that a nation gives others are not relevantly appreciated. That's why prominent Georgia...
 
Dodo Chumburidze
The textbook of History of Abkhazia for secondary educational institutions by Oleg Bgazhba and Stanislav Lakoba, Sukhumi, 2006.The book presents the history of Abkhazia from ancient times to the present day.Unfortunately, the textbook is so devoid of scientific argumentations, that it seems unnecessary to discuss its historical-cultural, socio-economic and political concepts ". It is clear that ...
 
Vasil Kvirikshvili
In the beginning of the XIX century, when Russia annexed Kartli and Kakheti and later the entire Georgia Ossetians together with Georgians soon felt chill of colonial politics of occupants. Situation of population that even before was oppressed by serf taxes became even graver. Maintaining of Tsarist occupational forces and serving them was becoming more and more unbearable. Lawlessness, corrupt...
 
Salome Kapanadze
Each monument of culture on the occupied territory has not only cultural but also political significance for our country. It is history of Georgia carved in stone and unpleasant reality for historians-falsifiers. It still keeps many secrets. Indeed, one can say that in Abkhazia and in particular in the Gali district, many sites have not been studied thoroughly and are in need of further research...
 
Vasil Kvirikashvili
"The lie possesses ability to acquire, similarly to snow" In March 1920 following the decision of so-called South Ossetian National Council a new self-proclaimed South Ossetian Revolutionary Committee or RevCom and it declared Tskhinvali as its capital. Tskhinvali – a town where only several Ossetian families lived. Who was in charge of this Ossetian movement in Shida Kartli is obv...